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Ancient grid plans[ edit ] The Gridded paper plan of Milet in the Classical period By BC, Mohenjo-daro and Harappamajor cities of the Indus Valley Civilization in what is now Pakistanwere built with blocks divided by a grid of straight streets, running north-south and east-west.
Each block was subdivided by small lanes. Sirkap and Taxiladating from the 1st millennium BC to the 11th century AD, also had grid-based designs. Many pyramid-cult cities used a common orientation: The streets of Babylon were wide and straight, intersected approximately at right angles, and were paved with bricks and bitumen.
The tradition of grid plans is continuous in China from the 15th century BC onward in the traditional urban planning of various ancient Chinese states. Guidelines put into written form in the Kaogongji during the Spring and Autumn period BC stated: Three gates on each side of the perimeter lead into the nine main streets that crisscross the city and define its grid-pattern.
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And for its layout the city should have the Royal Court situated in the south, the Marketplace in the north, the Imperial Ancestral Temple in the east and the Altar to the Gods of Land and Grain in the west. The city's grid covered 21 square kilometres 8 square miles.
Perhaps the most well-known grid system is that spread through the colonies of the Roman Empire. The archetypal Roman Grid was introduced to Italy first by the Greeks, with such information transferred by way of trade and conquest. However, it slowly gained primacy through the work of Hippodamus of Miletuswho planned and replanned many Greek cities in accordance with this form.
His conquests were a step in the propagation of the grid plan throughout colonies, some as far-flung as Taxila in Pakistan,  that would later be mirrored by the expansion of the Roman Empire.
The Greek grid had its streets aligned roughly in relation to the cardinal points  and generally looked to take advantage of visual cues based on the hilly landscape typical of Greece and Asia Minor.
Its layout was based on Greek Ionic ideas, and it was here that the main east-west and north-south axes of a town the decumanus maximus and cardo maximus respectively could first be seen in Italy. According to Stanislawskithe Romans did use grids until the time of the late Republic or early Empire, when they introduced centuriationa system which they spread around the Mediterranean and into northern Europe later on.
The Roman grid was similar in form to the Greek version of a grid, but allowed for practical considerations. For example, Roman castra were often sited on flat land, especially close to or on important nodes like river crossings or intersections of trade routes.
Familiarity was the aim of such standardisation: Each would have the aforementioned decumanus maximus and cardo maximus at its heart, and their intersection would form the forum, around which would be sited important public buildings. Indeed, such was the degree of similarity between towns that Higgins states that soldiers "would be housed at the same address as they moved from castra to castra".
Outside of the castra, large tracts of land were also divided in accordance with the grid within the walls. These were lined up to be as straight as possible, only deviating from their path due to natural obstacles that prevented a direct route. Under Roman guidance, the grid was designed for efficiency and interchangeability, both facilitated by and aiding the expansion of their empire.
Asia from the first millennium AD[ edit ] As Japan and the Korean peninsula became politically centralized in the 7th century AD, those societies adopted Chinese grid-planning principles in numerous locations. However, for reasons of defense, the planners of Tokyo eschewed the grid, opting instead for an irregular network of streets surrounding the Edo Castle grounds.
In later periods, some parts of Tokyo were grid-planned, but grid plans are generally rare in Japan, and the Japanese addressing system is accordingly based on increasingly fine subdivisions, rather than a grid. The grid-planning tradition in Asia continued through the beginning of the 20th century, with SapporoJapan est.Cartesian graph paper is the most popular form of graph paper in use.
This type of graph paper is identified by its two perpendicular sets of lines forming a square grid. This graph paper’s grid is used when graphing two-dimensional equations, and this versatile graph paper is useful for sketches, craft projects, layouts and other non-math.
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The grid plan, grid street plan, or gridiron plan is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a initiativeblog.com infrastructure cost for regular grid patterns is generally higher than for patterns with discontinuous streets.
Costs for streets depend largely on four variables: street width, street length, block width and pavement width. Bienfang's Gridded Paper is popular for designing, drawing, pattern making, etc.
It has non-reproducing blue lines printed on both sides of the paper. Abstract. Plastic debris in the marine environment is widely documented, but the quantity of plastic entering the ocean from waste generated on land is unknown.