Midcourse Review Data Are In! Check out our interactive infographic to see progress toward the Social Determinants of Health objectives and other Healthy People topic areas. Goal Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all.
Evidence has accumulated, however, pointing to socioeconomic factors such as income, wealth, and education as the fundamental causes of a wide range of health outcomes.
This article broadly reviews some of the knowledge accumulated to date that highlights the importance of social—and particularly socioeconomic—factors in shaping health, and plausible pathways and biological mechanisms that may explain their effects. We also discuss challenges to advancing this knowledge and how they might be overcome.
A large and compelling body of evidence has accumulated, particularly during the last two decades, that reveals a powerful role for social factors—apart from medical care—in shaping health across a wide range of health indicators, settings, and populations.
Meanwhile, researchers increasingly are calling into question the appropriateness of traditional criteria for assessing the evidence. He found that mortality from multiple causes had fallen precipitously and steadily decades before the availability of modern medical-care modalities such as antibiotics and intensive care units.
McKeown attributed the dramatic increases in life expectancy since the 19th century primarily to improved living conditions, including nutrition, sanitation, and clean water.
A review by McGinnis et al.
This stepwise gradient pattern was first noted in the United Kingdom. Minkler and colleagues found dramatic socioeconomic gradients in functional limitations among people aged 65—74 years.
This finding is particularly remarkable because income gradients generally tend to flatten in old age.During the past two decades, the public health community's attention has been drawn increasingly to the social determinants of health (SDH)—the factors apart from medical care that can be influenced by social policies and shape health in powerful ways.
Social determinants of health are shaped by the distribution of money, power, and resources throughout local communities, nations, and the world . Socioeconomic Gradient in Health This term refers to the stepwise fashion health outcomes improve as socioeconomic position improves.
This essay brings together intersectionality and institutional approaches to health inequalities, suggesting an integrative analytical framework that accounts for the complexity of the intertwined influence of both individual social positioning and institutional stratification on health.
Social determinants of mental health: a review of the evidence. Manuela Silva a; Adriana Loureiro b and Graça Cardoso a. a Chronic Diseases Research Centre (CEDOC), NOVA Medical School Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Portugal b Centre of Studies on Geography and Spatial Planning (CEGOT), University of Coimbra.
|The Dahlgren-Whitehead rainbow - Economic and Social Research Council||Disability These social determinants of health are related to health outcomes, public policy, and are easily understood by the public to impact health. They tend to cluster together — for example, those living in poverty experience a number of negative health determinants.|
|MPH Core Competency Model||Chapter 4 Determinants of health 4. This chapter examines three key determinants of health:|
|What are social determinants of health?||The determinants of health Introduction Many factors combine together to affect the health of individuals and communities. Whether people are healthy or not, is determined by their circumstances and environment.|
Portugal. This study was developed within the .
The determinants of food choice 06 June Given the priority for population dietary change there is a need for a greater understanding of the determinants that affect food choice.
Health outcomes, however defined and measured, are produced by determinants or factors. They often are sorted into the five categories presented on the right in the following model.
Health care determinants generally include access, cost, quantity, and quality of health care services.