Guadeloupe Public holidays are days off from work that are usually officially announced by national or state governments. These announcements can be made years or months in advance, or even only a few days before the holiday takes place. In every country, some public holidays are taken more seriously than others. Some are solemn, while others are almost purely an opportunity for travel, fun and family activities.
Greek and Roman precedents The history of the Western state begins in ancient Greece. This city-state, characterized primarily by its self-sufficiency, was seen by Aristotle as the means of developing morality in the human character.
The Greek idea corresponds more accurately to the modern concept of the nation—i.
The res publica was a legal system whose jurisdiction extended to all Roman citizens, securing their rights and determining their responsibilities. With the fragmentation of the Roman system, the question of authority and the need for order and security led to a long period of struggle between the warring feudal lords of Europe.
In The PrinceMachiavelli gave prime importance to the durability of government, sweeping aside all moral considerations and focusing instead on the strength—the vitality, courage, and independence—of the ruler.
For Bodin, his contemporary, power was not sufficient in itself to create a sovereign; rule must comply with morality to be durable, and it must have continuity—i.
It created a climate for the ideas of the 17th-century reformers like John Locke in England and Jean-Jacques Rousseau in Francewho began to reexamine the origins and purposes of the state.
Man subjects himself to the rule of the state as the only means of self-preservation whereby he can escape the brutish cycle of mutual destruction that is otherwise the result of his contact with others.
For Locke, the human condition is not so gloomy, but the state again springs from the need for protection—in this case, of inherent rights.
Rather than the right of a monarch to rule, Rousseau proposed that the state owed its authority to the general will of the governed. For him, the nation itself is sovereign, and the law is none other than the will of the people as a whole.
Influenced by Plato, Rousseau recognized the state as the environment for the moral development of humanity. Man, though corrupted by his civilization, remained basically good and therefore capable of assuming the moral position of aiming at the general welfare.
Because the result of aiming at individual purposes is disagreement, a healthy noncorrupting state can exist only when the common good is recognized as the goal. Hegel The 19th-century German philosopher G.
Freedom was not the capacity to do as one liked but was the alignment with a universal will toward well-being.
When men acted as moral agents, conflict ceased, and their aims coincided. Subordinating himself to the state, the individual was able to realize a synthesis between the values of family and the needs of economic life. To Hegel, the state was the culmination of moral action, where freedom of choice had led to the unity of the rational will, and all parts of society were nourished within the health of the whole.
However, Hegel remained enchanted with the power of national aspiration. Contemporary views In the 20th century, concepts of state ranged from anarchismin which the state was deemed unnecessary and even harmful in that it operated by some form of coercion, to the welfare statein which the government was held to be responsible for the survival of its members, guaranteeing subsistence to those lacking it.
In the wake of the destruction produced by the nationalistically inspired world wars, theories of internationalism like those of Hans Kelsen and Oscar Ichazo appeared. Kelsen put forward the idea of the state as simply a centralized legal order, no more sovereign than the individual, in that it could not be defined only by its own existence and experience.
It must be seen in the context of its interaction with the rest of the world. Ichazo proposed a new kind of state in which the universal qualities of all individuals provided a basis for unification, with the whole society functioning as a single organism.Decolonization of Asia and Africa, – Between and , three dozen new states in Asia and Africa achieved autonomy or outright independence from their European colonial rulers.
Britain withdrew from its bases in Singapore, divested itself of its smaller colonies in the Caribbean and the Pacific, and in it was finally able to grant independence to Rhodesia (Zimbabwe).
The Commonwealth is an association of sovereign nations which support each other and work together towards international goals.
It is also a ‘family’ of peoples. State: State, political organization of society, or the body politic, or, more narrowly, the institutions of government. The state is a form of human association distinguished from other social groups by its purpose, the establishment of order and security; its methods, the laws and their enforcement; its.
The history of Singapore has been dominated by a narrow range of issues: the process of constitutional development during the era of decolonisation, the alleged threat posed by the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) and the island’s rapid social and economic transformation following separation from Malaysia in Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other initiativeblog.com term refers particularly to the dismantlement, during the second half of the 20th century, of the colonial empires established prior to World War I throughout the world.